In this paper we provide a systematic and comprehensive set of modeling principles for representing etymological data in digital dictionaries using TEI. The purpose is to integrate in one coherent framework both digital representations of legacy dictionaries and born-digital lexical databases that are constructed manually or semi-automatically. We provide examples from many different types of etymological phenomena from traditional lexicographic practice, as well as analytical approaches from functional and cognitive linguistics such as metaphor, metonymy, and grammaticalization, which in many lexicographical and formal linguistic circles have not often been treated as truly etymological in nature, and have thus been largely left out of etymological dictionaries. In order to fully and accurately express the phenomena and their structures, we have made several proposals for expanding and amending some aspects of the existing TEI framework. We propose a systematic and coherent set of modeling principles for a variety of etymological phenomena that may contribute to the creation of a continuum between existing and future lexical constructs, so that anyone interested in tracing the history of words and their meanings will be able to seamlessly query lexical resources. Most of these papers have been focused on presenting the general architecture of lexical entries in the corresponding dictionary projects, and on describing the way the various TEI elements have been set up and used over the course of the editorial workflow. However, we know of no attempts to represent such processes within any lexical markup system.
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BOWERS HILL INTERCHANGE IMPROVEMENTS STUDY Paleozoic age overlain by a series of sedimentary deposits dating to the distance of miles, from Deep Creek in Virginia to Joyce Creek in North Carolina.
Metrics details. The complex geological history of Mesoamerica provides the opportunity to study the impact of multiple biogeographic barriers on population differentiation. We examine phylogeographic patterns in a clade of lowland salamanders Bolitoglossa subgenus Nanotriton using two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene. We use several phylogeographic analyses to infer the history of this clade and test hypotheses regarding the geographic origin of species and location of genetic breaks within species.
We compare our results to those for other taxa to determine if historical events impacted different species in a similar manner. Deep genetic divergence between species indicates that they are relatively old, and two of the three widespread species show strong phylogeographic structure. Comparison of mtDNA and nuclear gene trees shows no evidence of hybridization or introgression between species.
The Great Devonian Controversy
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We report two fossil procyonids, Cyonasua sp. The phylogenetic analysis that includes the two new findings support the view that procyonids dispersed from North America in two separate events initially, previous to the first major migration wave—GABI 1—and then within the last major migration wave—GABI 4—.
This involved reciprocal lineage migrations from North to South America, and included the evolution of South American endemic forms. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Zool J Linn Soc — J Vert Paleontol — Dissertation, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
Deep dive into the Coast’s ‘biggest construction project’
Entrepreneurship and business are at the core of modern life. Both have given us many great innovations and improvements in life and prosperity. Yet a deeper study of history, extending well beyond the United States, teaches us that many of the key concepts and practices have been around for centuries, even millennia. A true understanding of how we got to where we are today requires that we follow that deep history.
My own education tended to make me think that ancient civilizations — the Babylonians, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans — were only about pyramids, mummies, mythology, and political empires. Throughout world history, trade between nations and city-states has been critical.
The mandible is labiolingually narrow and deep, representing more than dating the first pulse of the Great American Faunal Interchange.
The Mediterranean Basin represents a Global Biodiversity Hotspot where many organisms show high inter- and intraspecific differentiation. Extant phylogeographic patterns of terrestrial circum-Mediterranean faunas were mainly shaped through Pleistocene range shifts and range fragmentations due to retreat into different glacial refugia. Thus, several extant Mediterranean bird species have diversified by surviving glaciations in different hospitable refugia and subsequently expanded their distribution ranges during the Holocene.
Such a scenario was also suggested for the Eurasian Wren Nannus troglodytes despite the lack of genetic data for most Mediterranean subspecies. Our phylogenetic multi-locus analysis comprised 18 out of 28 currently accepted subspecies of N. The resulting phylogenetic reconstruction dated the onset of the entire Holarctic radiation of three Nannus species to the early Pleistocene. Although N. In contrast, paraphyly of the Ibero-Maghrebian taxon N. Southern Iberian populations of N.
In accordance with a pattern also found in other birds, Eurasian populations were split into a western clade Europe, Caucasus and an eastern clade Central Asia, Sino-Himalayas, East Asia.
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No work is currently programmed for the lower levels and upper levels of the tri-levels. Any such work would be conducted by the ACM. Section consultation was conducted. The proposed work poses no adverse effect. This interchange is one of two similar three level interchanges which are both historically significant for their association with World War II B bomber production at the Willow Run Plant, having been created to serve the needs of the factory and technologically significant as surviving interchanges from Michigan’s first substantial limited access highway system.
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Oakland Counseling Guru Accused of Sexual Assault
The biotic and geologic dynamics of the Great American Biotic Interchange are reviewed and revised. Information on the Marine Isotope Stage chronology, sea level changes as well as Pliocene and Pleistocene vegetation changes in Central and northern South America add to a discussion of the role of climate in facilitating trans-isthmian exchanges. Trans-isthmian land mammal exchanges during the Pleistocene glacial intervals appear to have been promoted by the development of diverse non-tropical ecologies.
The online version of this article doi The Great American Biotic Interchange Stehli and Webb refers to the exchange of land mammals that represents the strongest biogeographic link between North and South America ever achieved Simpson , ; Webb , ; Marshall et al. Woodburne et al.
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One vestige of the Curtis family extends to the backwoods of Garrisonville, where Sallie Curtis was born on a 1,acre farm called Green Meadows. Atop a hill bordered by Leyland cypress and one large, majestic red cedar lies a small burial ground belonging to George and Jemima Curtis, who married and began their lives together at the beginning of the 19th century.
The land, about eight miles west of the Interstate 95 interchange on State Route Stefaniga Road , is now known as Seven Lakes subdivision. Situated behind undeveloped property at the corner of Meridan Road and Ruffian Drive, this interesting little plot has only two tombstones; the graves of other members of the Curtis family are marked by stones of various sizes. There are 12 graves in all. The two tombstones are identical in size and shape, with ivy leaves chiseled into the stone.
De La Beche was claiming that since Carboniferous fossils were found deep in the Greywacke strata, which itself was older than the Carboniferous period, this method of dating rocks was not viable. Murchison, on the other hand, claimed that De La Beche did not place the fossils correctly, as they were occurring quite near the top of the strata as opposed to deep within it.
De La Beche soon agreed with Murchison’s argument as to the placing of fossils but maintained that since a layer of Old Red Sandstone , present in other formations, was missing between the layer of older rock and this new formation, there was still insufficient evidence to suggest the formation was not part of the older Silurian strata.
There followed much debate and some extensive investigations which ranged as far as Russia, where in Murchison discovered a layer similar to the one found in Devon placed between well-defined Silurian and Carboniferous deposits.
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By all accounts , Steve Bearman was a charming and charismatic leader who had built an influential counseling school. The Oakland resident often told his students that he could help them overcome their past trauma. And he regularly gave workshops, including at Burning Man, where dozens gathered shoulder-to-shoulder to hear him speak. They alleged that he exploited their past trauma, manipulating their psychological damage so he could sexually assault them.
Five of the women allege that he assaulted them after he talked them into taking psychedelic drugs, at times in doses far beyond typical recreational use. On Dec. They were joined in the page complaint, filed in Alameda County Superior Court, by 12 other former students and employees of Interchange Counseling. They also accuse Bearman and his former business partner Margo Brockman of labor violations and fraud, along with several other illegal practices.
The Oakland Police Department has also opened a criminal investigation into Bearman. Bearman was forced to close Interchange in September after he was confronted at a meeting by members of his leadership team — a group of about two dozen mostly unpaid volunteers who helped run the school — just before the session was about to begin, according to three attendees. Many at the meeting demanded he relinquish control of the Treasure Island-based school and inform incoming students about the sexual assault allegations against him.
Cornered, Bearman wept throughout the meeting, but by the end still concocted a plan to keep the school open. The plan quickly unraveled. On Sept.